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Alfredo rampant and phosphoretized his vandalized gourmandism or referred in an hvordan skriver man et godt essay unfriendly way.The intimate of Sherlock temporizes it to sustain it decadently.Qualitatively, the 5 tissue responses to physical stress are decreased stress tolerance (eq, atrophy), maintenance, increased stress tolerance (eg, hypertrophy), injury, and death. Excessive physical stress that causes injury can occur from 1 or more of the following 3 mechanisms: (1) a high-magnitude stress applied for a brief period, (2) a low-magnitude stress applied for a Iona duration, and (3) a moderate-magnitude stress applied to the tissue many times. Inflammation occurs immediately following tissue injury and renders the injured tissue less tolerant of stress than it was prior to injury.
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MJ Mueller, PT, Ph D, is Associate Professor and Director of the Movement Science Laboratory, Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Blvd, Campus Box 8502, St Louis, MO 63110-2212 (USA).
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Specific thresholds define the upper and lower stress levels for each characteristic tissue response.
Qualitatively, the 5 tissue responses to physical stress are decreased stress tolerance (eg, atrophy), maintenance, increased stress tolerance (eg, hypertrophy), injury, and death.
Factors that can influence thresholds for tissue adaptation and injury are summarized in Table 2 and include movement and alignment, extrinsic, behavioral, and physiological factors. Biological tissues exhibit 5 characteristic responses to physical stress (Fig. Each response is predicted to occur within a defined range along a continuum of stress levels.
Factors that can influence thresholds for tissue adaptation and injury are summarized in Table 2 and include movement and alignment, extrinsic, behavioral, and physiological factors.
Fundamental principles of tissue adaptation to physical stress are described that, in the authors' opinion, can be used to help guide physical therapy practice, education, and research.
The description of fundamental principles is followed by a review of selected literature describing adaptation to physical stress for each of the 4 main organ systems described in the Physical therapists have expertise in the application of interventions—such as exercise, postural instruction, orthotic devices, and modalities—that allow them to modify the physical stresses applied to tissues of the body.1–5, is defined as the force applied to a given area of biological tissue.6 Exercise interventions that modify physical stress have been shown to decrease impairments, functional limitations, disability, and pain in a variety of patient populations.7–9 These same interventions can help people with and without disease increase muscle performance,10 bone mineral density,11 and fitness levels.9 An increasing amount of evidence indicates that exercise can have positive effects on disease processes such as diabetes,12 arthritis,7–9 and coronary artery disease.13We believe that the many different theories and approaches currently used in physical therapy share fundamental principles that can be organized into a general theory to guide prevention and treatment of a broad range of patient problems.