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cannot decline a polite handshake tacit cooperation (p. 37) Goffman, Erving, Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Bahavior, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1967.29) meet shared but different objectives tact to help self and others tacit agreement to do business thru language of hint (p. Decides (conscious or unconscious) how to behave Rules of maintaining conversation and taking proper place in interaction (p. Goffman, Erving, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Garden City, New York, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1959.
Whenever in the physical presence of another individual, humans automatically interact by talking to, gesturing to, thinking about and judging one another – or, in Goffman’s terminology, we take lines and through them claim a face for ourselves.
Goffman turns everyday metaphorical expressions of social interaction into scientific terminology: “lines” are the verbal and non-verbal behaviours that express an actor’s view of the social encounter and its participants (including the actor); and “face” is the image cooperatively constructed by the actor, who projects it, and the other interactants, who interpret it (5).
For example, a bureaucrat may present a particular face that is expected, but may show himself or herself to be flexible and understanding, thus showing in a negative manner the wider attributes usually associated with the position.
These networks and connections are reminiscent of Webers note of how social action need not be direct encounters with others, but could be unknown individuals, and these could be in the past, present, or future.
Goffman did not develop a theoretical approach that would explain all parts of the social world, but he developed an analysis of the interaction order social situations or environments in which two or more individuals are physically in one anothers presence (Goffman Reader, p. These are the situations where we spend much or most of our life in face-to-face activities involving others, whether these be everyday social situations, situations within organized structures (jobs, school), or unusual social situations (accidents, weddings, funerals).
In addition to the ordinary situations of everyday life, Goffman also examined unusual situations such as prisons and asylums, total institutions, using these to show how individuals used various means (many unauthorized) to maintain their sense of selfhood.
Interestingly, by exploring different analytical perspectives on the same phenomena, Goffman compellingly shows how the psychosocial mechanics of face-to-face interaction form the building blocks of social structure.
For Goffman, the body is not incidental to the social process, but the very source of “behavioral materials” (1) (glances, gestures, verbal statements, etc.).
“Living up to one’s reputation” is yet another way to put it.
The terminology varies, the phenomena stay the same.