Literature Review On Substance Abuse

Literature Review On Substance Abuse-74
Furthermore, researchers have not yet determined how best to target and deliver interventions to sociodemographic groups at the greatest risk for substance use-associated HIV. individual interventions, may significantly impact the effectiveness of interventions aimed at HIV prevention for those who need them most.Finally, there has not been a widely disseminated universal intervention technique for preventing HIV in substance users.Reasons for the increased risk of contracting HIV in these particular sociodemographic groups may include lack of HIV and substance use education, lack of access to healthcare, discrimination, and increased stigma [2].

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Reduction in frequency of risky sexual behaviors were observed in 33% IDU and 64% NIDU studies, where 56% of IDU studies effectively increased drug use-related hygiene and 67% decreased frequency of injections.Universal HIV prevention interventions including HIV education, drug use practices, and high-risk sexual practices may target multiple factors that contribute to increased risk among substance users.Although recent research showed that combined biomedical and behavioral approaches have the most potent effect on HIV risk reduction [9], the intervention topics that confer the greatest reductions in HIV risk have yet to be determined.MSM who are also in the IDU population further have been reported to have increased violence, which should be considered in HIV prevention efforts [8].Therefore, the IDU and NIDU populations should be separated to clearly define the best intervention methods for these differing groups at risk of contracting HIV.Substance users in particular are at substantially increased risk of contracting HIV.The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reports that approximately 81% of individuals living with HIV have used illicit substances at least once in their lifetime, with approximately 17% of HIV-positive individuals having used injectable drugs during their lifetime [1].Substance users belonging to marginalized sociodemographic groups are also at greater risk for contracting HIV.The Centers for Disease Control Drug Surveillance Report (2011–2016) indicated that of all injection drug users sampled, there were greater proportions of African-American (41.2%) HIV-positive injection drug users than white (32.5%) injection drug users [3].The health consequences of drug use are a priority area for the EMCDDA and impaired driving and road traffic accidents linked to drugs constitute an important topic on which comprehensive information is lacking.The literature review addressed inter alia the relationship between different patterns of drug consumption, impaired driving and traffic accidents.


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